a medical English LInking keywords finder for the PubMed Zipped Archive


The med-ELIZA is a medical English LInking keywords finder for PubMed Zipped Archive, which searches keywords linking to each other in PubMed-medical-paper-abstracts in four phases. med-ELIZA analyzes the links between keywords occurring in the entire PubMed, in the same abstract, in the same sentence, and in the keyword in context (kwic).

The demonstrations shown below are examples for “study”, which is the most used keyword in the PubMed, and “aim”, which is a linking keyword to “study”.

What med-ELIZA does

  • ELIZA finds four types of linking keywords, neighboring (keyword in context, kwic), closely linking (in a sentence), loosely linking (in an abstract) keywords, and medical keywords (in the PubMed).
  • Thus, ELIZA assists you in writing medical English papers and in researching a specific medical subject linking to the keyword.
  • ELIZA uses the PubMed database updated daily.


Finding prepositions following a keyword

ELIZA searches and analyzes a keyword following a keyword.
Typing in  “found”, and clicking the “Search” button will show the right kwic search for “found”.

The word “found” is the 15th most used keyword in PubMed. The most used words following are “to be”.
Below the kwic search, ELIZA shows frequent words that follow “found”.

Frequently used prepositions that follow “found” are “in”, “between”, “for”, “at”, “with”, “on”, “among”, “by”, “during”, “from”, and “after”. Clicking the order number will bring you to the representing examples. Clicking the keyword will bring you to another kwic search for the keyword.
Clicking the “left(kwic)” button will sort the search results in the order of the word left to the keyword. Clicking the “right(kwic)” button will switch the display back to the right kwic.
Clicking the order number at the left of each search result will show the abstract and the links to the PMID (PubMed ID) and DOI. Clicking the “abstract OFF” button brings you back to the kwic search results.
The navigation buttons “<<“, “<“, “>”, and “>>” will bring you back and forth around the search results. 
Clicking the “kwic OFF” button will show the search result in the full sentence. Clicking the “kwic ON” button will bring you back to the kwic display.

Finding linking words to a keyword

Type in “study”, click “Search” and click the “link” button will show the linking words to the word “study”.

The lists of linking words to “study” are associated words with “study” in the same sentence. The result suggests that medical study usually sets the aim of evaluating the effects of something relating to health. ELIZA also suggests that the synonyms of “aim” are “purpose” and “objective”, and those of “evaluate” are “assess”, “examine”, “investigate”, “determine”, and “compare”.
Further clicking the word in the list evokes another search. For instance, clicking “aim” will show a concatenated keywords search.

ELIZA analyzes kwic using up to two neighboring words. If the neighboring words are a rare combination, ELIZA automatically searches in “Multi” keyword mode and brings you to the “Multi” mode. Using “+” for concatenating words like “study+aim” force ELIZA treat the concatenated words as one keyword. The result is the same as using “study aim” in this case.

Since ELIZA only does kwic search for up to 2 keywords, using “+” for concatenating multiple words to build a phrase can force ELIZA to analyze kwic. Nevertheless, if ELIZA judges the phrase is a rare or non-existing phrase, she performs the “Multi” keyword search.

Multi-mode: What are the keywords in the research field?

ELIZA analyzes linking keywords occurring in the same abstract when you click the “Multi” button. You may want keywords in a research field. Then, use Multi-Mode of ELIZA using multiple keywords, though ELIZA can perform Multi mode using only one keyword. You can evoke Multi mode in several modes.

  1. Directly evoke Multi mode from the top page by typing keywords and clicking the “Multi” button.
  2. Rare keywords search for kwic will automatically bring you to the Multi-mode.
  3. In the “link” mode for two keywords, for example, “study aim”, clicking another keyword “children” (in the 38th entry) brings you to “Multi” mode, as shown below.

Clicking the “link” button will show you linking words to “study aim children”. In the “link” mode, you can add another keyword and order ELIZA to analyze another round of “Multi” keyword search. The limit of the multiple keyword number is nine.
The linking words suggest that the frequent aim of study concerning children’s health may be mental and clinical issues relating to school, family, age, and food, etc.

InLine mode: Is there any relationship between A and B?

“InLine” mode is such a powerful mode of ELIZA that other tools are not able to perform. You may want to know if there is any paper describing the relationship between A and B. This kind of search is obscured by the papers where the relationship is not emphasized or not demonstrated directly. These kinds of indirect relationships may occur in the same abstract but not in the same sentence and dilute the search results making it difficult for you to find the paper when bulk query results are returned by the PubMed search. By searching the occurrence of keywords in the same sentence, ELIZA does perform this kind of analysis.
The InLine mode can be evoked by clicking the “InLine” button as other search modes. Since much power of the server is used for this search, please be patient before getting the results, especially when applying multiple keywords more than four.
Like Multi mode the InLine mode shows the “InLine link”  button to lead to the list of closely linking words allowing for adding another keyword and another round of InLine search.

Restore history

The keywords typed in for InLine and Multi modes are stored privately (IP address-dependently) in the server. Clicking the “Restore” button will restore your keywords typed in previously. The history will be erased by clicking the “Clear cache” button, though it will not be kept permanently. The cache may be erased at the time of server maintenance.
(c) sirasawa, 2019