* Echographic findings in ectopic intrathyroidal thymic tissue in children. A systematic review.
- Intrathyroidal ectopic thymic tissue (IETT) is an indulgent, unusual entity and is part of the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules in the pediatric population. Because of the low prevalence of IETT, the diagnosis may be difficult. Awareness of this diagnosis is definitive to avoid surgical interventions. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the echographic characteristics of IETT. We conducted a search of Ovid, PubMed and the virtual health library. A total of 619 patients with a mean age of 6.2 years old were included. IETT was located in the lower portion of both of the thyroidal lobes in 556 children, the echographic shape was reported for 173 patients, with the fusiform shape as the most representative, the appearance of the IETTs was reported for 121 patients, the most common was the hypoechogenic pattern with multiple internal echogenic foci. The average lesion diameter was 5.53 mm, and Doppler findings reported a hipovascular pattern in 56% of the lesions. In conclusion, IETT is an infrequent entity; nonetheless, it must be considered in the differential diagnosis of neck nodules in children and should be study and follow with echography to avoid unnecessary surgery.
* MRI changes in calf muscles of two children with cerebral palsy following Botulinum Toxin Type A injections: a preliminary report.
- Intramuscular injections of Botulinum Toxin Type A (BoNT-A) in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) have been introduced in clinical practice with the aim of reducing muscle tone, preventing muscle contractures and, ultimately, improving function. The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively the MRI changes in the calf muscles, gastrocnemius (GN) and soleus (S) of two children with unilateral spastic CP (US-CP), prior and more than 1-year following BoNT-A injections. Two male patients with US-CP were injected at the level of the GN and S muscles. Patients underwent a first lower extremity MRI prior to the first BoNT-A injection at the level of GN and S muscles of the affected side. A second MRI was perfomed 34 and 22 months after the index procedure, respectively. Both legs were investigated together symmetrically, to allow a precise comparison between muscles and structures. The MRI protocol included three sequences: axial-T2 weighted tse, SPACE and axial-T1 weighted. We found that BoNT-A injected GN and S muscles had increased signal intensity on the MRI performed 22 and 34 months after index procedure, when compared to the contralateral, not placebo injected (NaCl) leg. To the best of our knowledge, no previous studies have investigated the changes induced in muscle structures in ambulatory children with US-CP managed by BoNT-A injections. Level of evidence: II.