ELIZA cgi-bash version rev. 1.90
- Medical English LInking keywords finder for the PubMed Zipped Archive (ELIZA) -

return kwic search for use out of >500 occurrences
821596 occurrences (No.5 in the rank) during 5 years in the PubMed. [cache]
429) Ten rhesus macaque monkeys on an active METH self-administration protocol (average use 4.6 ± 0.8 years, average daily intake between 0.4 and 1.2 mg/kg) and 10 age- and sex-matched drug-naive controls (CONT) served as subjects.
--- ABSTRACT ---
PMID:23910722 DOI:10.1111/adb.12078
2015 Addiction biology
* Withdrawal from long-term methamphetamine self-administration 'normalizes' neurometabolites in rhesus monkeys: a (1) H MR spectroscopy study.
- (1) H magnetic resonance spectroscopy has demonstrated alterations in several neurometabolites in methamphetamine (METH)-dependent individuals in brain regions implicated in addiction. Yet, it is unclear whether these neurochemicals return to homeostatic levels after an individual abstains from drug use, a difficult question to address due to high recidivism and poor study retention in human subjects. We thus utilized a non-human primate model of addiction to explore the effects of long-term drug exposure and withdrawal on brain neurochemistry. Ten rhesus macaque monkeys on an active METH self-administration protocol (average use 4.6 ± 0.8 years, average daily intake between 0.4 and 1.2 mg/kg) and 10 age- and sex-matched drug-naive controls (CONT) served as subjects. Concentrations of several neurochemicals were evaluated at several timepoints following withdrawal from drug availability (10 monkeys at 1 week and 1 and 3 months, and 6 monkeys at 6 and 12 months; CONT examined at one timepoint). At 1 week following METH withdrawal, we found increases in myo-inositol in anterior cingulate cortex in the METH group relative to CONT. These alterations showed a linear pattern of decreased levels ('normalization') by 1 year of abstinence. We also found decreases in glutamine and Glx (composed mainly of glutamate and glutamine) in the caudate-putamen of the same animals at early withdrawal that showed a similar linear pattern of increasing concentration by 1 year. These results demonstrate that despite protracted, long-term use, neurochemical changes seen following long-term drug administration do not persist following prolonged abstinence, suggesting therapeutic effects of long-term withdrawal from drug use.
[frequency of next (right) word to use]
(1)263 of (8)5 is (15)3 by (22)2 at
(2)34 in (9)5 was (16)3 it (23)2 has
(3)24 *null* (10)5 with (17)3 these (24)2 therapeutic
(4)24 and (11)4 a (18)3 were (25)2 to
(5)8 the (12)4 among (19)3 when (26)2 visual
(6)5 as (13)3 are (20)2 TAA
(7)5 for (14)3 because (21)2 acculturation,

add keyword

--- WordNet output for use --- =>利用, 使う, 利用する, (体, 能力など)を働かす, 使用, 利用法 Overview of noun use The noun use has 7 senses (first 6 from tagged texts) 1. (90) use, usage, utilization, utilisation, employment, exercise -- (the act of using; "he warned against the use of narcotic drugs"; "skilled in the utilization of computers") 2. (18) function, purpose, role, use -- (what something is used for; "the function of an auger is to bore holes"; "ballet is beautiful but what use is it?") 3. (7) use -- (a particular service; "he put his knowledge to good use"; "patrons have their uses") 4. (1) consumption, economic consumption, usance, use, use of goods and services -- ((economics) the utilization of economic goods to satisfy needs or in manufacturing; "the consumption of energy has increased steadily") 5. (1) habit, use -- ((psychology) an automatic pattern of behavior in reaction to a specific situation; may be inherited or acquired through frequent repetition; "owls have nocturnal habits"; "she had a habit twirling the ends of her hair"; "long use had hardened him to it") 6. (1) manipulation, use -- (exerting shrewd or devious influence especially for one's own advantage; "his manipulation of his friends was scandalous") 7. use, enjoyment -- ((law) the exercise of the legal right to enjoy the benefits of owning property; "we were given the use of his boat") Overview of verb use The verb use has 6 senses (first 3 from tagged texts) 1. (603) use, utilize, utilise, apply, employ -- (put into service; make work or employ for a particular purpose or for its inherent or natural purpose; "use your head!"; "we only use Spanish at home"; "I can't use this tool"; "Apply a magnetic field here"; "This thinking was applied to many projects"; "How do you utilize this tool?"; "I apply this rule to get good results"; "use the plastic bags to store the food"; "He doesn't know how to use a computer") 2. (12) use, habituate -- (take or consume (regularly or habitually); "She uses drugs rarely") 3. (8) use, expend -- (use up, consume fully; "The legislature expended its time on school questions") 4. use -- (seek or achieve an end by using to one's advantage; "She uses her influential friends to get jobs"; "The president's wife used her good connections") 5. practice, apply, use -- (avail oneself to; "apply a principle"; "practice a religion"; "use care when going down the stairs"; "use your common sense"; "practice non-violent resistance") 6. use -- (habitually do something (use only in the past tense); "She used to call her mother every week but now she calls only occasionally"; "I used to get sick when I ate in that dining hall"; "They used to vacation in the Bahamas") --- WordNet end ---