* Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Among Other Nonpharmacological Interventions on Behavior and Quality of Life in Children with Compromised Conduct in Spain.
- The aim of this study was to assess the impact of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation among other nonpharmacological treatments on mental health and quality of life (QOL) of children with behavioral disorders. An observational multicenter study of 6- to 12-year-old children with behavior-related problems was performed in Spain with a three-month follow-up assessment. The Kidscreen-10 and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQ) were used to assess effectiveness of each intervention. Characteristics of study population were compared with those of the general population. Subanalyses of two homogenous subgroups, who received versus did not receive dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids, were performed. The study included 942 children (69.1% male) with a mean (SD) age of 8.5 (1.8) years. Overall, patients' health status and QOL significantly improved at three months (p < .001). Scores on the SDQ also improved, with significant reductions on all subscales (p < .05). Comparison of SDQ results with the same-age general population showed higher overall scores in the study population (8.5 [5.5] vs. 18.6 [8.1], respectively) and on all the subscales (p < .001 in all cases). The omega-3 fatty acid supplementation subgroup presented greater improvements in each category of SDQ (p < .05), except for the emotion subscale. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation alone or in combination with other nonpharmacological treatments is effective in improving children's mental health. Overall, nonpharmacological recommendations currently made by pediatricians seem to be effective in improving the perceived health status and patients' QOL and in the reduction of health problems, especially hyperactivity/inattention and conduct problems.
* Factor structure of the Friends and Family interview.
- The aim of this study was to specify the latent construct structure of the Friends and Family Interview (FFI: Steele & Steele, 2005) based on its dimensional scale coding protocol. The FFI is a semi-structured interview measuring attachment in middle childhood. We analyzed data from 341 FFI interviews with children aged 7-12 years, recruited in the Scandinavian Öresund Region. Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed a three-component model as best fitting the data. The first component, denoting attachment security, gathered all dimensional scales for evidence of secure base/safe haven regarding mother/father and coherence in the child's narrative style, along with scales regarding reflective functioning, self-perception, and social functioning. The second component comprised preoccupying feelings of anger, but also derogation. The third component gathered all scales coding idealization. Inter-relations among the components were consistent with attachment theory, and respondents' scores for all three components differed significantly across the four categorical attachment classifications. Affect regulation of negative emotion through anger and through derogation co-occurred, and was distinct from regulation through maintaining a belief that things are better than they appear (idealization). These two affect regulation strategies appeared commonly when reflective functioning, and an organized self-perception, and positive peer relations were less in evidence. The multi-dimensional FFI coding system appears to measure successfully these diverse features of the child's narrative provided in response to the interview. Overall, our findings support the construct validity of the FFI and provide further evidence of its usefulness for assessing attachment in middle childhood and early adolescence.