* Is exclusive breastfeeding for six-months protective against pediatric tuberculosis?
- Experts recommend exclusive breastfeeding from birth to six months because it protects against deadly childhood illness, including respiratory tract infections and diarrhea. We hypothesized that exclusive breastfeeding would decrease the risk of active tuberculosis (TB) in children. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 279 children in Lima, Peru aged 6 to 59 months with TB symptoms and a close adult contact with TB. Mothers self-reported breastfeeding, and children were evaluated for TB per national guidelines. To quantify the association between exclusive breastfeeding and TB, we estimated prevalence ratios using a generalized linear model with a log link, binomial distribution, and robust variance. Twenty-two percent of children were diagnosed with TB and 72% were exclusively breastfed for six months. We found no evidence that six months of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with TB disease in either bivariate analyses (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.5; 95%CI = 0.8-2.5) or multivariable analyses adjusting for sex and socioeconomic status (adjusted PR = 1.6; 95%[CI] = 0.9-2.7). In post hoc analyses among children whose close TB contact was their mother, we found evidence of a weak positive association between breastfeeding and TB (aPR = 2.1; 95%[CI] = 0.9-4.9). This association was not apparent among children whose close contact was not the mother (aPR = 1.2; 95%[CI] = 0.6-2.4). Our results raise the possibility that children who are breastfed by mothers with TB may be at increased risk for TB, given the close contact. Due to the cross-sectional study design, these results should be interpreted with caution. If these findings are confirmed in longitudinal analyses, future interventions could aim to minimize TB transmission from mothers with TB to breastfeeding infants.
* Investigating the compatibility, interchangeability, and clinical usability of BOT2-BF and BOT2-SF in primary school-aged children with and without developmental dyslexia.
- The aim of our study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity levels of BOT2-BF and BOT2-SF tests applied to children with developmental dyslexia and to examine their clinical usability. This study was designed as a case-controlled study. 82 (study group 41, control group 41) 7-12 year children were included. The study occurred three stages. In the first place, the similarities and differences of BOT2-BF and BOT2-SF tests observed in clinical practices were examined by taking the feedback of experts and test correlations. In the second step, BOT2-BF and BOT2-SF tests were examined with reference to the Core Outcome Set (COS) evaluation criteria. In the last step, in order to examine the sensitivity and specificity levels of the tests, assessments were performed in two groups with 1-week intervals. According to the COS results, the BOT2-BF test was examined better than the BOT2-SF test under cross-cultural validity title. The sensitivity and specificity of BOT2-SF were 0.92 and 0.51, and for BOT2-BF were 0.92 and 0.41, respectively. This study will help clinicians working on children with developmental dyslexia to decide the type of test they will use to evaluate and easy access to materials motor proficiency.