* The experience of social distancing for families with children and adolescents during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in Uruguay: Difficulties and opportunities.
- The social distancing measures implemented to contain the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic worldwide have created a series of emotional and economic challenges. The aim of the present work was to explore the experiences of families with children and adolescents during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in Uruguay. An online study was conducted in March 2020 with 1725 parents with children under 18 years old. A series of closed and open-ended questions about their family life since the implementation of social distancing measures were asked, addressing the following topics: how they had felt, changes they had experienced in their daily life, children's daily routine, changes implemented in relation to child-care, changes they had perceived in children's eating patterns, changes in their relationship with their children, changes in their children's mood and behavior, and their reaction to those changes. Results showed that the coronavirus pandemic elicited negative feelings in the majority of participants, mainly related to worry, fear, anxiety and uncertainty. Social distancing measures caused a major disruption in daily habits, which were mostly attributed to changes in work-related activities and the closure of educational institutions. Changes in children's mood and behavior were perceived by the majority of the participants, who mainly referred to boredom, agitation and restlessness. Although some participants reported difficulties to cope with children's behavior during social distancing, others valued the opportunity of spending more time with their children. In terms of children's eating patterns, changes related to both an increase and a decrease in the consumption of healthy foods were observed. Results from the present work have relevant implications for public health policy and practice by highlighting the importance of providing emotional and psychological support to people during social distancing measures and providing insights for the design of communication campaigns and interventions.
* Classification of Congenital Zika Syndrome: Muscle Tone, Motor Type, Body Segments Affected, and Gross Motor Function.
- Aim: To identify abnormalities in muscle tone and motor function associated with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). Method: A cross-sectional observational study involving 96 children (55 males) with CZS at a mean (SD) age 35.2 ± 2.9 months. Children's muscle tone was investigated using the pull to sit, scarf sign, shoulder suspension and ventral suspension tests and the modified Ashworth scale (MAS). Motor impairment was determined using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and body segments most affected with motor impairment. Results: 58 (60,5%) children tested positive for ≥1 maneuver used to evaluate muscle tone, while 38 (39.5%) tested negative in all the tests. MAS score was >0 for at least one of the appendicular muscles in 91 children (94.8%). In 88 children (91.7%), all four limbs were affected. Conclusion: Findings suggestive of axial hypotonia and appendicular hypertonia associated with severe motor impairment were prevalent in children with CZS.