* Recent Trends in the Prescribing of ADHD Medications in Canadian Primary Care.
- Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and incidence of ADHD medication prescribing, by age and gender, from 2005 to 2015 in Canadian primary care. Method: A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the prescribing of ADHD medications between 2005 and 2015 using electronic medical record data. Yearly prevalence and incidence of ADHD medication prescribing were calculated for preschoolers (up to 5 years old), school-aged children (6-17 years old), and adults (18-65 years old) along with a description of the types of ADHD medications prescribed between 2005 and 2015. Results: Between 2005 and 2015, there was a 2.6-fold increase in the prevalence of ADHD medication prescribing to preschoolers, a 2.5-fold increase in school-aged children, and a fourfold increase in adults. There was a corresponding rise in incidence of prescribing although this rise was moderate and estimates were much lower compared with prevalence. The most commonly prescribed medication was Methylphenidate (65.0% of all ADHD medications prescribed). Conclusion: Although the prevalence of ADHD has remained stable over time, this study found an increase in the prescribing of ADHD medications in all age groups between 2005 and 2015. Incidence of new prescriptions was small relative to prevalence, suggesting that longer term treatments are being adopted.
* Predictors for Receiving Medication and/or Psychotherapy in Children Newly Diagnosed With ADHD: A Longitudinal Population-Based Cohort Study.
- Objective: The aim of this study is to identify characteristics predicting the use of medication and/or psychotherapy after a first ADHD diagnosis. Method: This cohort study was based on German claims data including 12,250 treatment-naïve children aged 5 to 12 years with an incident ADHD diagnosis in 2010. Logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between children's characteristics at first diagnosis and the chosen treatment within the following 5 years. Results: Medication use was associated with male sex, an ADHD diagnosis "with hyperactivity," comorbid depression, and comorbid developmental and conduct disorders. Male sex and comorbid neurotic and somatoform, conduct, and emotional disorders were associated with psychotherapy only. Receiving both treatments-instead of medication only-was associated with comorbid depression, neurotic and somatoform, conduct, and emotional disorders. Conclusion: In case of equal access to both treatment options, patients, for example, with externalizing symptoms were more prone to receive medication and/or psychotherapy than the average child diagnosed with ADHD.