* Dynamic interaction patterns of monolingual and bilingual infants with their parents.
- Bilingual children show a number of advantages in the domain of communication. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether differences in interactions are present before productive language skills emerge. For a duration of 5 minutes, 64 parents and their 14-month-old infants explored a decorated room together. The coordination of their behaviors in the modalities of action, language, and gesture was coded. The results showed no differences in interactions across different language statuses. In two additional analyses, we first compared monolinguals and bilinguals with caregivers who shared the same language and culture. Results showed the same pattern of non-difference. Second, we compared bilinguals with caregivers from different cultures. The rate and duration of coordination differed across infants with different cultural backgrounds. The findings suggest that exposure to two languages is not sufficient to explain the previously identified beneficial effects in the communicative interactions of bilingual children.
* Enamel defects and caries prevalence in preterm children aged 5-10 years in Dubai.
- Background: Enamel defects (EDs) are commonly reported dental findings in preterm/low birthweight children. EDs potentially increase caries susceptibility.Aim: To assess the prevalence of EDs and dental caries in a group of preterm children (aged 5-10 years) in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE).Methodology: A retrospective cohort study of medical records of 62 preterm children (mean age 8.1 ± 1.54) and 62 full-term children (mean age 8.1 ± 1.73) of both genders born in a UAE children's hospital were studied. These children were dentally assessed for EDs and caries by a calibrated examiner.Results: EDs were 4.34 times more prevalent among preterm children [odd ratio (OR) = 4.338, CI 95% [2.010-9.366]. The prevalence of EDs in the pre-term group was 58.15%, significantly higher (P < 0.01) than the full-term control group (24.2%). Birth weight, intubation and type of delivery were statistically significant factors contributing to EDs. In the primary dentition, the mean dmft was 4.61 ± 4.30, while in the permanent dentition DMFT was 0.38 ± 0.99. There was a statistically significant difference in permanent teeth caries experience amongst pre-term children compared to the full-term control as measured by DMFT (P = 0.008).Conclusion: EDs and dental caries in permanent dentition in the pre-term group were significantly higher than the full-term group.