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11) PMID: 33387122 DOI: 10.1007/s10096-020-04129-7
% 2021 European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology
* Lyme neuroborreliosis in Swedish children-PCR as a complementary diagnostic method for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in cerebrospinal fluid.
- The aim of this study was to evaluate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic method for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in CSF of Swedish children with LNB. This study was performed retrospectively on CSF and serum samples collected from children evaluated for LNB (n = 233) and controls with other specific neurological disorders (n = 59) in a Swedish Lyme endemic area. For anti-Borrelia antibody index, the IDEIA Lyme Neuroborreliosis kit (Oxoid) was used. Two in-house real-time PCR assays targeting the 16S rRNA gene were evaluated (TaqMan® and LUX™). Among patients classified as LNB cases (n = 102), five children (5%) were Borrelia PCR-positive in CSF with the TaqMan® assay. In the Non-LNB group (n = 131), one patient was Borrelia PCR positive with the TaqMan® assay. Among controls (n = 59), all CSF samples were PCR negative. When amplifying and sequencing ospA, we found B. garinii (n = 2), B. afzelii (n = 2), B. bavariensis (n = 1), and one untypable (n = 1). With the LUX™ technology, all CSF samples were PCR negative. The TaqMan® assay could detect only few cases (n = 6) of B. burgdorferi s.l. in CSF among children with LNB and the sensitivity was very low (5%). However, using larger CSF volumes and centrifugation of samples, the PCR technique could still be useful as a complementary diagnostic method when evaluating LNB. Furthermore, detection of spirochete DNA in clinical matrices, including CSF, is the method of choice for studying epidemiological aspects of LNB, a tick-borne emerging disease.

12) PMID: 33389301 DOI: 10.1007/s10803-020-04820-w
% 2021 Journal of autism and developmental disorders
* Comparison of Serum VEGF, IGF-1, and HIF-1α Levels in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Healthy Controls.
- The aim of this study was to determine whether serum VEGF, IGF-1, and HIF-1α levels differed between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) patients and healthy controls. A total of 40 children with ASD and 40 healthy controls aged 4-12 years were included. Serum levels of VEGF, IGF-1, and HIF-1α were measured using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Serum IGF-1 levels were found to be statistically significantly higher in the ASD group than in the control group. Serum HIF-1α levels were borderline significantly lower in the ASD group. There was no statistically significant difference in serum VEGF levels between the two groups. IGF-1 and HIF-1α may play a potential role in the etiopathogenesis of ASD.

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