% 2021 International journal of environmental research and public health
* Personal and Environmental Risk Factors at Birth and Hospital Admission: Direct and Vitamin D-Mediated Effects on Bronchiolitis Hospitalization in Italian Children.
- Seasonal variations in UV-B radiation may influence vitamin D status, and this, in turn, may influence the risk of bronchiolitis hospitalization. The aim of this study was using a causal inference approach to investigate, simultaneously, the interrelationships between personal and environmental risk factors at birth/hospital admission (RFBH), serum vitamin D levels and bronchiolitis hospitalization. A total of 63 children (<2 years old) hospitalized for bronchiolitis (34 RSV-positive) and 63 controls were consecutively enrolled (2014-2016). Vitamin D levels and some RFBH (birth season, birth weight, gestational age, gender, age, weight, hospitalization season) were recorded. The discovered RFBH effects on the risk ok bronchiolitis hospitalization were decomposed into direct and vitamin-D mediated ones through Mediation Analysis. Winter-spring season (vs. summer-autumn) was significantly associated with lower vitamin D levels (mean difference -11.14 nmol/L). Increasing serum vitamin D levels were significantly associated with a lower risk of bronchiolitis hospitalization (OR = 0.84 for a 10-nmol/L increase). Winter-spring season and gestational age (one-week increase) were significantly and directly associated with bronchiolitis hospitalization (OR = 6.37 and OR = 0.78 respectively), while vitamin D-mediated effects were negligible (1.21 and 1.02 respectively). Using a comprehensive causal approach may enhance the understanding of the complex interrelationships among RFBH, vitamin D and bronchiolitis hospitalization.
* Connection between Social Relationships and Basic Motor Competencies in Early Childhood.
- In preschool, children build new contacts and social relationships with other people. They learn to cooperate with their peers and communicate in groups. In addition to social relationships, basic motor competencies (in German: Motorische Basiskompetenzen (MOBAK)) are also seen as a central developmental goal in early childhood and are necessary for participation in the culture of sports and movement. The aim of this paper is to describe the connection between social relationships and basic motor competencies in early childhood. In this present study, the motor competencies of N = 548 preschool children (51% girls, M = 68.0 months, SD = 6.8) were tested in the competence areas of self-movement and object movement. The children's perceived social relationships were recorded from teacher and parent perspectives. The results clearly show a connection between social relationships and motor competencies in early childhood, with a stronger connection observed in boys. This finding is relevant both from a developmental and a health-oriented perspective, as it points to a link between physical and mental health, as well as technical and interdisciplinary competencies, in early childhood.