| - Background: Environmental health is a growing area of knowledge, continually increasing and updating the body of evidence linking the environment to human health. Aim: This study summarizes the epidemiological evidence on environmental risk factors from meta-analyses through an umbrella review. Methods: An umbrella review was conducted on meta-analyses of cohort, case-control, case-crossover, and time-series studies that evaluated the associations between environmental risk factors and health outcomes defined as incidence, prevalence, and mortality. The specific search strategy was designed in PubMed using free text and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms related to risk factors, environment, health outcomes, observational studies, and meta-analysis. The search was limited to English, Spanish, and French published articles and studies on humans. The search was conducted on September 20, 2020. Risk factors were defined as any attribute, characteristic, or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or death. The environment was defined as the external elements and conditions that surround, influence, and affect a human organism or population's life and development. The environment definition included the physical environment such as nature, built environment, or pollution, but not the social environment. We excluded occupational exposures, microorganisms, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), behavioral risk factors, and no-natural disasters. Results: This umbrella review found 197 associations among 69 environmental exposures and 83 diseases and death causes reported in 103 publications. The environmental factors found in this review were air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, heavy metals, chemicals, ambient temperature, noise, radiation, and urban residential surroundings. Among these, we identified 65 environmental exposures defined as risk factors and 4 environmental protective factors. In terms of study design, 57 included cohort and/or case-control studies, and 46 included time-series and/or case-crossover studies. In terms of the study population, 21 included children, and the rest included adult population and both sexes. In this review, the largest body of evidence was found in air pollution (91 associations among 14 air pollution definitions and 34 diseases and mortality diagnoses), followed by environmental tobacco smoke with 24 associations. Chemicals (including pesticides) were the third larger group of environmental exposures found among the meta-analyses included, with 19 associations. Conclusion: Environmental exposures are an important health determinant. This review provides an overview of an evolving research area and should be used as a complementary tool to understand the connections between the environment and human health. The evidence presented by this review should help to design public health interventions and the implementation of health in all policies approach aiming to improve populational health.
| - Children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at risk of developing nutrition deficiencies, particularly because of reduced intake, restrictive diets, malabsorption, and excessive nutrient loss. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of anemia and micronutrient deficiencies at diagnosis and one year follow up in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Children and young adults diagnosed with IBD before the age of 17 years between 2012 and 2018 were included. Laboratory measurements including serum levels of iron, ferritin, zinc, vitamin D, vitamin A, vitamin E, selenium, copper, vitamin B12, and red blood cell (RBC) folate at diagnosis and one-year follow-up were documented as part of the Manitoba Longitudinal Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease (MALPID) Cohort. A total of 165 patients with IBD were included, 87 (53%) with Crohn's disease (CD) and 78 (47%) with ulcerative colitis (UC). The prevalence of deficiencies in our cohort at diagnosis and one year follow-up, respectively, were iron (56% and 27%), ferritin (39% and 27%), zinc (10% and 6%), vitamin D (22% and 13%), vitamin A (25% and 25%), vitamin E (5% and 4%), selenium (10 and 7%), copper (17% and 27%), vitamin B12 (2% and 5%), and Red blood cell (RBC) folate (1% and 17%). Anemia was present in 57% and 25% at diagnosis and follow up respectively. In CD patients, age of diagnosis (15y-younger than 18y) was a predictor of moderate to severe anemia and albumin levels (<33 g/L) were protective against anemia. Many children with IBD suffer from anemia and micronutrient deficiencies at diagnosis and some fail to recover after one year despite being in clinical remission.