* Measuring Traumatic Reactions in Palestinian Children: A Psychometric Assessment of the Children Revised Impact of Event Scale-Arabic Version (CRIES-13A).
- The aim of the present study was to test the measurement model and measurement invariance of the Impact of Event Scale (Arabic version) in a large sample of Palestinian children. We estimated (Study 1; n = 610) the measurement model using confirmatory factor analysis. In Study 2 (n = 864), we conducted multigroup (girls and boys) tests of measurement invariance. We pooled the data collected from the participants in the first two studies (Study 3, N = 1474) to assess overall score reliability, as well as the IES' convergent and divergent validity vis-à-vis other measures of child wellbeing and mental health. The outcomes of the statistical analyses supported an invariant 13-item measurement model (intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal) for CRIES-13A. Intrusion and hyper-arousal together made up a first-order domain of symptoms (re-experiencing). The combined findings of these studies suggest that the CRIES-13A displays robust psychometric properties and may be used in contexts of military violence.
* The Role of Remembered Parenting on Adult Self-Esteem: A Monozygotic Twin Difference Study.
- Self-esteem is an attitude about the self that predicts psychopathology and general well-being. Parenting practices have been shown to be related to self-esteem, but these estimates are confounded because parents and children share genes. The aim of the present study was to use the monozygotic (MZ) twin difference design to isolate the non-shared environmental impact of remembered parenting on self-esteem. In a sample of 1328 adults (345 MZ twin pairs, 319 DZ twin pairs), retrospective reports of maternal and paternal affection were related to self-esteem, all of which were significantly heritable. Using MZ difference scores, paternal affection differences, but not maternal affection differences, were significantly related to self-esteem differences. These results suggest that parenting provided by the father directly impacts self-esteem through non-shared environmental mechanisms. Maternal affection, on the other hand, impacts self-esteem through shared genes (not shared environment, as shared environment was not a significant aspect of self-esteem). This has implications for parenting intervention programs.