ELIZA cgi-bash version rev. 1.90
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79) PMID: 33465005 DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2020.8671
% 2021 Journal of women's health (2002)
* Fertility and Reproductive Health in Women Physicians.
- Background: Our aim was to evaluate trends of childbearing during medical training, evaluate issues of infertility, and measure institutionalized barriers to childbearing among women physicians. Materials and Methods: Attendees of a national women physician's leadership conference (Brave Enough Women Physicians Continuing Medical Education Conference) were surveyed during the conference using Qualtrics© (2019 Qualtrics, Provo, UT), in September 2019. Survey data included demographics, training level, and medical specialty. Data related to reproductive health factors, pregnancy status and history, current number of children, medical history related to pregnancy, breastfeeding history, institutional family planning support, and use of previous fertility treatments were collected. Descriptive analyses were done using IBM SPSS v26.0. Results: Three hundred seventy-seven survey participants were included in the study. 10.6% of respondents reported at least one pregnancy during medical school, versus 78.8% as a practicing physician. Of the participants, 25.8% reported having taken off 1 month or less of clinical duties after giving birth, 39.4% reported that their job prevented breastfeeding for the desired length of time, and 52.2% reported significant workplace limitations to breastfeeding. Of them, 25.5% reported having had fertility issues in the past. Fertility drugs (72.9%) was the most common fertility treatment method used, followed by fertility tracking (54.2%). Demands of training (72.9%) and long work hours (61.5%) were the most cited factors in delaying having children as reported by women physicians. Conclusions: This study reported several barriers related to fertility, family planning, and reproductive health among women physicians. Our results highlight the need for a paradigm shift in fertility awareness and institutional support for childbearing during medical training, postgraduate training programs, and in practice for women in medicine.

80) PMID: 33465314 DOI: 10.1044/2020_LSHSS-20-00058
% 2021 Language, speech, and hearing services in schools
* The Influence of Quantitative Intervention Dosage on Oral Language Outcomes for Children With Developmental Language Disorder: A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis.
- Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the degree to which quantitative aspects of dosage (dose, dose frequency, and total intervention duration) have been examined in intervention studies for children with developmental language disorder (DLD). Additionally, to establish the optimal quantitative dosage characteristics for phonology, vocabulary, and morphosyntax outcomes. Method This registered review (PROSPERO ID CRD42017076663) adhered to PRISMA guidelines. Search terms were included in seven electronic databases. We included peer-reviewed quasi-experimental, randomized controlled trial or cohort analytical studies, published in any language between January 2006 and May 2020. Included articles reported on participants with DLD (M = 3-18 years); oral language interventions with phonology, vocabulary, or morphosyntax outcomes; and experimental manipulation or statistical analysis of any quantitative aspect of dosage. Studies were appraised using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Results Two hundred forty-four articles reported on oral language interventions with children with DLD in the domains of interest; 13 focused on experimentally/statistically manipulating quantitative aspects of dosage. No article reported phonological outcomes, three reported vocabulary, and eight reported morphosyntax. Dose frequency was the most common characteristic manipulated. Conclusions Research is in its infancy, and significant further research is required to inform speech-language pathologists in practice. Dosage characteristics are rarely adequately controlled for their individual effects to be identified. Findings to date suggest that there is a point in vocabulary and morphosyntax interventions after which there are diminishing returns from additional dosage. If dose is high (number of learning opportunities within a session), then the literature suggests that session frequency can be reduced. Frequent, short sessions (2/3 × per week, approximately 2 min) and less frequent, long sessions (1 × per week, approximately 20 min) have yielded the best outcomes when composite language measures have been used; however, replication and further research are required before clinicians can confidently integrate these findings into clinical practice. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.13570934.

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