* Childhood predictors of adult obesity in the Chicago Longitudinal Study.
- Despite obesity being a major concern for both children and adults in the United States today, there are few successful childhood interventions that curb obesity later in life. The objective of the current study is to identify childhood predictors of adult obesity at multiple levels in a large longitudinal sample of participants from an economically disadvantaged childhood cohort. 1065 participants (93% Black) from the Chicago Longitudinal Study were interviewed as part of a 30-year follow-up between 2012 and 2017. Parent involvement, school quality, neighborhood human capital, socioemotional learning skills, and achievement motivation assessed before age 12 years were examined as predictors of Body Mass Index (BMI) at age 35 years. Child neighborhood human capital and socioemotional learning skills predicted a lower BMI in adulthood and a decreased likelihood of being classified as obese; when separately analyzed by sex, both neighborhood human capital and higher socioemotional learning skills predicted a decreased likelihood of obesity for males and females. Being female and higher birthweight were associated with larger adult BMI. Socioemotional learning and neighborhood human capital in childhood consistently predict a decreased likelihood of being obese at age 35 in this predominately Black sample. Future obesity intervention/prevention programs should aim to bolster childhood socioemotional learning resources and neighborhood capital.
* The impact of computer use on myopia development in childhood: The Generation R study.
- Environmental factors are important in the development of myopia. There is still limited evidence as to whether computer use is a risk factor. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between computer use and myopia in the context of other near work activities. Within the birth cohort study Generation R, we studied 5074 children born in Rotterdam between 2002 and 2006. Refractive error and axial length was measured at ages 6 and 9. Information on computer use and outdoor exposure was obtained at age 3, 6 and 9 years using a questionnaire, and reading time and reading distance were assessed at age 9 years. Myopia prevalence (spherical equivalent ≤-0.5 dioptre) was 11.5% at 9 years. Mean computer use was associated with myopia at age 9 (OR = 1.005, 95% CI = 1.001-1.009), as was reading time and reading distance (OR = 1.031; 95% CI = 1.007-1.055 (5-10 h/wk); OR = 1.113; 95% CI = 1.073-1.155 (>10 h/wk) and OR = 1.072; 95% CI = 1.048-1.097 respectively). The combined effect of near work (computer use, reading time and reading distance) showed an increased odd ratio for myopia at age 9 (OR = 1.072; 95% CI = 1.047-1.098), while outdoor exposure showed a decreased odd ratio (OR = 0.996; 95% CI = 0.994-0.999) and the interaction term was significant (P = 0.036). From our results, we can conclude that within our sample of children, increased computer use is associated with myopia development. The effect of combined near work was decreased by outdoor exposure. The risks of digital devices on myopia and the protection by outdoor exposure should become widely known. Public campaigns are warranted.