* The Association Between Urinary BPA Levels and Medical Equipment Among Pediatric Intensive Care Patients.
- We aim to evaluate urinary total BPA (tBPA) levels and association with medical devices used on patients in pediatric intensive care units. This cross-sectional descriptive study included 117 critically ill children. Urinary tBPA levels were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. General estimating equations with repeated measures analyzed the effect of interventions and devices on urinary BPA levels. A total of 292 urine samples taken from 117 child intensive care patients were studied. When age, sex, and body mass index-for age z-scores were controlled, cases having endotracheal intubation showed higher urinary tBPA levels (p = 0.003) and hemodialyzed patients had considerably higher urinary tBPA levels (p = 0.004). When confounding factors were controlled, cases using both multiple iv treatment and more than four medical devices showed higher urinary tBPA levels than their counterparts (p = 0.007 and p = 0.028, respectively). The use of certain medical devices and interventions could increase BPA exposure in pediatric intensive care patients.
% 2021 European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
* Maternal ADHD medication use during pregnancy and the risk of ADHD in children: Importance of genetic predispositions and impact of using a sibling analysis.
- Attention deficit with hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications in pregnancy would be associated with ADHD in children, however, estimates can be confounded by genetic predispositions and environmental factors related to the mother-child pair. We aim to quantify the risk of ADHD in children associated with ADHD medication exposures during pregnancy. A prospective cohort study and sibling analysis conducted within The Quebec Pregnancy/Child Cohort (QPC). All full-term singleton live births covered by the provincial prescription drug insurance in Quebec from 1998 to 2015 were included. ADHD medication exposure during pregnancy was defined according to trimester of use and class-specific medication. ADHD in children was defined as having at least one diagnosis or one prescription filled for an ADHD medication. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate crude and adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in the overall cohort, the sub-cohort and the sibling analysis. Of 166,047 full-term singleton live births included, 25,454 (15.3%) had ADHD. In the overall cohort, maternal exposure to ADHD medication during pregnancy was associated with ADHD in children (aHR= 1.96, 95% CI 1.22-3.15). In the ADHD pregnant women sub-cohort (aHR= 1.56; 95% CI 0.93-2.62) and the sibling control analysis (aHR= 1.14; 95% CI 0.62-1.98), ADHD medications during pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of ADHD in children. Our findings suggest that in utero exposure to ADHD medications was not associated with an increased risk of ADHD in children. This suggests that the association is due to genetic and/or family environmental factors.