* Phenotypic and genetic characteristics of Streptococcus mutans isolates from site-specific dental plaque in China.
- Introduction.Streptococcus mutans is an important cariogenic microbe.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. The potential characteristics of S. mutans isolates from site-specific dental plaque are still not clear.Aim. This studyaimed to investigate the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of S. mutans isolates from site-specific dental plaque in China.Methodology. We used S. mutans isolated from children with early-childhood caries (ECC) and caries-free children to compare the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of S. mutans from site-specific dental plaque samples. The ECC subjects presented two sites: a cavitated lesion and a sound surface. The caries-free subjects presented one sound surface. Growth pattern, biofilm, decrease in pH, extracellular polysaccharide, expression levels of virulence-related genes, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and phylogenetic trees were evaluated among these three sites.Results. The phenotypes detected between the cavitated and sound surfaces of ECC children were similar. However, the capacity for biofilm formation, pH drop and expression levels of genes (gtfB and spaP) of S. mutans in the caries-free group were lower compared with those of the ECC group. We identified 44 new alleles and 77 new sequence types. More than 90 % of the children with ECC shared an identical sequence type. The distribution of sequence types among different subjects showed diversity, and child-to-child transmission was detected.Conclusions. This is the first report of MLST on site-specific dental plaques in a single subject, and indicates that S. mutans isolated from site-specific dental plaque of a single subject showed similar phenotypes as a result of the isolates were closely related.
% 2021 Journal of autism and developmental disorders
* High Depression Symptoms and Burnout Levels Among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Multi-Center, Cross-Sectional, Case-Control Study.
- The diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in a child affects family processes, increases parenting stress and marital conflicts, and may lead to parental psychopathology. It may also affect the prognosis for their children. The aim of this study is to determine depression and burnout levels as well as their predictors among parents of children with ASD compared with those of healthy children. We also sought to evaluate rate of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions among parents and explore the associations of this phenomenon in an exploratory fashion. 145 children with ASD and 127 control children were enrolled along with their mothers and fathers. Beck Depression Inventory and Maslach Burnout Inventory were used to evaluate parents' depression symptoms and burnout levels. Symptoms of children with ASDs were evaluated according to the Childhood Autism Rating Scale by the clinicians. Family, child and CAM variables were screened by means of a sociodemographic data form. Descriptive, bivariate and correlation analyses were used in statistical evaluations. Predictors of burnout were evaluated with multiple regression analysis. Burnout and depression levels among parents of children with ASD were significantly elevated compared to controls. Burnout levels of mothers were significantly elevated compared to fathers while depression scores of fathers were significantly elevated compared to mothers. Maternal burnout was significantly predicted by presence of functional speech in child while paternal burnout was significantly predicted by paternal vocation. Maternal depression was associated with paternal depression, lack of speech in child and attendance of child to special education services. Paternal depression was associated with autistic symptom severity and maternal depression. More than half the parents sought CAM interventions. Education level did not affect search for CAM interventions while both maternal and paternal psychopathology and presence of epilepsy among children increased use of CAM methods. Psychological support should be provided to both mothers and fathers of a child receiving a diagnosis of ASD. Addressing parents' burnout and stress levels and facilitating their negotiation of knowledge on etiology and treatments for ASD may be beneficial for the family unit as a whole.