* Even a Mild Sleep Restriction Can Impact Daytime Functioning in Children with ADHD and Their Typically Developing Peers.
- Objectives/Background: Correlational studies show that short sleep is associated with negative daytime outcomes in school-aged children, but there are few experimental sleep manipulation studies to assess whether this is a causal relation. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of mild, cumulative sleep restriction on daytime functioning of typically developing (TD) children and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants: A total of 36 school-aged children (n = 18 TD; n = 18 ADHD), aged 6-11 years participated. Methods: Children participated in two sleep conditions (order counter-balanced). The Restricted condition required a 1 h reduction of time in bed for one week, and the Controlled Typical condition was based on participant's average baseline sleep. At the end of each condition, participants attended the sleep lab for overnight polysomnography and daytime functioning assessments. Results: Children successfully reduced time in bed by ~1 h. Due to compensatory changes, total sleep time (TST) was reduced by only ~20 min, as children fell asleep faster and spent less time awake after sleep onset during the Restricted compared to Controlled Typical condition. Many daytime functions were not affected by this very mild sleep restriction, however, both groups showed significant changes in performance on an objective attention task and on a parent-rated emotional lability measure after six nights of minimal reductions in TST. There were no significant differences between groups. Conclusions: Results suggest that a very mild sleep restriction can affect children's attention and emotional regulation, even with evidence of compensatory sleep mechanisms.
* Outcome of Children with Wilms' Tumor in Developing Countries.
- Wilms' tumor is the most common kidney tumor of childhood. The outcome of this malignant tumor has improved due to the improvement of therapeutic strategies. The most important factor in determining the prognosis of these patients is the histopathology subtype of the tumor; unfavorable histopathology is seen in only 11.5% of the patients, which accounts for 52% of deaths. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the outcome of children with Wilms' tumor referred to our hospital over a period of 10 years. This is a retrospective cohort study, and the target population included all patients with Wilms' tumor referred to Ali Asghar Hospital and were treated according to the National Wilms tumor study 4 (NWTS-4) protocol. All patients' data were extracted from the medical records of the department. Overall survival and event-free survival (EFS) were analyzed by the Kaplan Mayer method in the SPSS software, version 23. Fifty-two patients (24 male and 28 female patients) with Wilms' tumor were included. The mean age of the subjects was 40 months. The most common stage among boys and girls was stage II (23.08% and 28.85%, respectively). Our findings revealed that the overall five-year survival of patients was 87±5%; this figure was determined as 100% for boys and 76.8% ± 1.6 for girls (P = 0.018). Our findings show a dramatic improvement in the outcome of children with Wilms's tumor, and our results are comparable with other results from developed countries. Gender may be an independent prognostic factor of children with Wilms' tumor.