* The Feasibility of the "Omega Kid" Study Protocol: A Double-Blind, Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Trial Investigating the Effect of Omega-3 Supplementation on Self-Regulation in Preschool-Aged Children.
- Self-regulation, the regulation of behaviour in early childhood, impacts children's success at school and is a predictor of health, wealth, and criminal outcomes in adulthood. Self-regulation may be optimised by dietary supplementation of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs). The aim of the "Omega Kid" study is to investigate the feasibility of a protocol to investigate whether n-3 LCPUFA supplementation enhances self-regulation in preschool-aged children. The protocol assessed involved a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of 12 weeks duration, with an intervention of 1.6 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per day (0.3 g EPA and 1.3 g DHA) in a microencapsulated powder compared to placebo. Children (n = 78; 40 boys and 38 girls) aged 3-5 years old were recruited and randomly allocated to the treatment (n = 39) or placebo group (n = 39). The HS-Omega-3 Index® served as a manipulation check on the delivery of either active (n-3 LCPUFAs) or placebo powders. Fifty-eight children (76%) completed the intervention (28-30 per group). Compliance to the study protocol was high, with 92% of children providing a finger-prick blood sample at baseline and high reported-adherence to the study intervention (88%). Results indicate that the protocol is feasible and may be employed in an adequately powered clinical trial to test the hypothesis that n-3 LCPUFA supplementation will improve the self-regulation of preschool-aged children.
* Intracranial hemorrhage in primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP): 20 years' experience in pediatrics.
- Incidence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) among children with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) varies among different studies. We published data during the period of 1997-2007 of ICH in children with primary ITP, addressing risk factors and outcome. The aim of this study is to assess changes in incidence, risk factors, and outcome of ICH in children with ITP from last decade and to report the overall 20 years' experience. We compared 2008-2018 with the decade before it. Data of children with ITP and ICH during study period and ITP control cases were analyzed. Neurosurgical intervention and outcome were also reported. A total of 4340 children with primary ITP were evaluated. Twenty-five (0.63%) ICH events were reported over 2 decades. Head trauma, hematuria, and platelet counts < 10 × 109/L were the risk factors mostly associated with ICH. Overall mortality was 24%, and a further 28% had neurologic sequelae. Neurosurgical intervention was done in 12% of cases with good outcome.Conclusion: Persistent platelet counts < 10 × 109/L were a significant risk factor for ICH in both time periods, while head trauma and hematuria were more reported in the period of 2008-2018 as significant risk factors for ICH. Outcome was comparable in both periods. What is Known: • ICH is a rare complication of ITP; however, early recognition of risk factors and aggressive treatment might lead to complete recovery without sequalae. Platelet counts less than < 10 × 109/L are the main risk factor for ICH. Few studies reported other significant risk factors. What is New: • Hematuria and head trauma are significant risk factors for ICH in ITP, in addition to having a persistently low platelet count < 10 × 109/L. (more than 90 days in chronic ITP, 45 days in persistent and 21 days in acute ITP) • Combined treatment with IVIG and HDMP followed by platelet transfusion was associated with complete recovery without sequelae in almost 50% of patients.