* The "price-tag" of foot health in infancy and early childhood: a cross sectional survey of UK parents.
- Children's feet are complex structures and strategies for supporting good foot health throughout childhood can be challenging. Greater awareness of the contemporary factors influencing decisions, such as footwear purchases, is needed to inform health narratives which are more closely aligned to parents' attitude and behaviours. The aim of this study was to explore parent's knowledge of children's foot health, understand the common foot health concerns and experiences with footcare services. A purposeful sampling approach was used to recruit parents of children aged 5 years and under. Participants completed a self-administered, online survey which consisted of 39 questions across six sections: (1) Participant demographics; (2) Developmental events (milestones such as crawling and walking); (3) Foot health concerns; (4) Developmental aids (products such as baby bouncers and baby walkers); (5) Footwear; and (6) Foot health information. Both adaptive and mandatory questions were used. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise closed-ended questions, and a summative content analysis was adopted to draw inferences from the text data. Two-hundred thirty-nine parents completed the survey, and this represented female participants (n = 213) aged between the ages 34-42 (n = 126) or 25-34 (n = 83) years of age. The survey generated responses from a wide geographical spread across the UK, but the majority of these were from the North West of England (n = 75) and South East of England (n = 46). Four main themes were drawn from the content analysis: (1) foot health concerns and seeking advice; (2) information and advice; (3) how parents support infant milestone events; and (4) footwear.Conclusion: This work provides insight into parents' perspective on the broad topics of children's foot health, identifying common experiences and concerns about their children's foot health and the factors which influence decision making. Understanding more about these issues will help health professionals support parents during infancy and early years. What is Known: • Maintaining good foot health throughout childhood is important and many factors influence decision making. • There is little understanding about how parents care for their children feet and their understanding of good foot health practices and services. What is New: • Insight into the common factors which influence parents' approaches to supporting early development and the typical concerns that parents encountered about their children's overall foot health and footwear. • Identifies areas of children's foot health for health professionals to target when developing information sources for parents.
* Molecular Epidemiology of Enterovirus in Children with Central Nervous System Infections.
- Limited recent molecular epidemiology data are available for pediatric Central Nervous System (CNS) infections in Europe. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of enterovirus (EV) involved in CNS infections in children. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from children (0-16 years) with suspected meningitis-encephalitis (ME) who were hospitalized in the largest pediatric hospital of Greece from October 2017 to September 2020 was initially tested for 14 common pathogens using the multiplex PCR FilmArray® ME Panel (FA-ME). CSF samples positive for EV, as well as pharyngeal swabs and stools of the same children, were further genotyped employing Sanger sequencing. Of the 330 children tested with FA-ME, 75 (22.7%) were positive for EV and 50 different CSF samples were available for genotyping. The median age of children with EV CNS infection was 2 months (IQR: 1-60) and 44/75 (58.7%) of them were male. There was a seasonal distribution of EV CNS infections, with most cases detected between June and September (38/75, 50.7%). EV genotyping was successfully processed in 84/104 samples: CSF (n = 45/50), pharyngeal swabs (n = 15/29) and stools (n = 24/25). Predominant EV genotypes were CV-B5 (16/45, 35.6%), E30 (10/45, 22.2%), E16 (6/45, 13.3%) and E11 (5/45, 11.1%). However, significant phylogenetic differences from previous described isolates were detected. No unusual neurologic manifestations were observed, and all children recovered without obvious acute sequelae. Specific EV circulating genotypes are causing a significant number of pediatric CNS infections. Phylogenetic analysis of these predominant genotypes found genetic differences from already described EV isolates.