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61) PMID: 33447893 DOI: 10.1007/s00431-020-03913-z
% 2021 European journal of pediatrics
* Frequency of syncope as a presenting symptom in channelopathies diagnosed in childhood. Can the multivariable EGSYS score unmask these children?
- Pediatric syncope raises cardiac etiology concern as it might be the first sign of life-threatening arrhythmia syndromes. Our aim was to study the incidence of syncope as the presenting symptom in children with arrhythmia syndromes, and if known, warning signs are helpful to reveal the arrhythmic origin. All data on children with channelopathy was followed by a tertiary pediatric cardiac center between 2000 and 2018 and data were reviewed retrospectively. Forty-eight patients were enrolled, representing long QT syndrome (n = 39), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (n = 5), and Brugada syndrome (n = 4). Presenting symptoms were syncope in 13 cases [27%] (including 7 initially mislabeled as epilepsy) and sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in 9 cases [19%]. In the rest of the group, the concern for arrhythmic etiology was raised by either an abnormal ECG during sports medicine screening (n = 13) [27%] or a positive family history of channelopathy (n = 13) [27%]. None of the patients presenting with SCA had a prior syncopal history. Six patients presenting with syncope and afterward treated with ICD had an appropriate shock. Description of witnessed syncope was available in eight out of thirteen children presenting with syncope. Multivariable EGSYS score suggested cardiac origin (≥ 3 points) in 7 out of 8 (88%) patients.Conclusions: Syncope was a relatively uncommon presenting symptom of channelopathies in this sample and did not always precede sudden cardiac arrests. However, we found that multivariable EGSYS score can identify syncope of arrhythmic origin, raising suspicion for pediatric channelopathies even in patients previously misdiagnosed with epilepsy. What is known: • Cardiac syncope is rare in children but can be the first sign of a potentially fatal primary arrhythmia syndrome and is frequently misdiagnosed as atypical/therapy-resistant epilepsy. • Multivariate EGSYS score is effective to diagnose cardiac syncope in adults. What is new: • Cardiac syncope as a presenting symptom is not common in children with cardiac channelopathies and is not often present before sudden cardiac arrest. • Multivariable EGSYS score might identify cardiac syncope in children with a hereditary and secondary channelopathy.

62) PMID: 33448897 DOI: 10.1080/15374416.2020.1846541
% 2021 Journal of clinical child and adolescent psychology : the official journal for the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, American Psychological Association, Division 53
* Effects of the KiVa Anti-Bullying Program on Affective and Cognitive Empathy in Children and Adolescents.
- Objective: As empathy is an important predictor of both bullying and defending behavior, many anti-bullying interventions aim to increase empathy among students. However, little is known on whether these interventions enhance both affective and cognitive empathy, and whether some students are more responsive than others to empathy-raising efforts. This study examined the effects of the Finnish anti-bullying program KiVa on changes in self-reported affective and cognitive empathy and tested whether these effects varied depending on students' gender, initial levels of empathy, peer-reported bullying, and peer-perceived popularity, as well as school type (primary versus secondary school) and classroom bullying norms. Method: Multilevel structural equation modeling analyses were conducted on pretest and posttest (1 year later) data from a sample of 15,403 children and adolescents (Mage = 13.4; 51.5% girls) in 399 control and 462 intervention classrooms from 140 schools participating in the evaluation of KiVa in 2007-2009. Results: KiVa had a positive effect on affective empathy, but not cognitive empathy. The effects of the program on both types of empathy did not depend on students' gender, initial levels of empathy, bullying, or popularity, nor on school type or classroom bullying norms. Conclusion: Findings suggest that KiVa can raise students' affective empathy regardless of students' gender, status, initial empathy, or levels of bullying, and regardless of school type or classroom bullying norms.

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