% 2021 Journal of developmental origins of health and disease
* High-fructose diet during puberty alters the sperm parameters, testosterone concentration, and histopathology of testes and epididymis in adult Wistar rats.
- The consumption of fructose has increased in children and adolescents and is partially responsible for the high incidence of metabolic diseases. The lifestyle during postnatal development can result in altered metabolic programming, thereby impairing the reproductive system and fertility during adulthood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a high-fructose diet in the male reproductive system of pubertal and adult rats. Male Wistar rats (30 d old) were assigned to four different groups: Fr30, which received fructose (20%) in water for 30 d and were euthanized at postnatal day (PND) 60; Re-Fr30, which received fructose (20%) for 30 d and were euthanized at PND 120; and two control groups C30 and Re-C30, which received water ad libitum and were euthanized at PND 60 and 120, respectively. Fructose induced an increase in abnormal seminiferous tubules with epithelial vacuoles, degeneration, and immature cells in the lumen. Moreover, Fr30 rats showed altered spermatogenesis and daily sperm production (DSP), as well as increased serum testosterone concentrations. After discontinuing high-fructose consumption, DSP and sperm number decreased significantly. We observed tissue remodeling in the epididymis, with a reduction in stromal and epithelial compartments that might have influenced sperm motility. Therefore, we concluded that fructose intake in peripubertal rats led to changes in the reproductive system observed both during puberty and adulthood.
* Interactive effects of DRD2 rs6277 polymorphism, environment and sex on impulsivity in a population-representative study.
- Previous research has shown that dopaminergic dysregulation and early life stress interact to impact on aspects of impulse control. This studyaimed to explore the potentially interactive effects of the rs6277 polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2), stressful or supportive environment and sex on behavioural and self-reported measures of impulsivity, as well as alcohol use - a condition characterised by a deficit in impulse control. The sample consisted of the younger cohort (n = 583) of the longitudinal Estonian Children Personality, Behaviour and Health Study. The results showed that the CC homozygotes (suggested to have decreased striatal D2 receptor availability) who had experienced stressful life events (SLE) or maltreatment in the family prior to age 15 showed higher self-reported maladaptive impulsivity at age 15. The genotype-SLE interaction and further association with sex was also evident in the frequency of alcohol use at age 15. Lack of warmth in the family contributed to significantly higher levels of thoughtlessness and more frequent alcohol use in CC carriers at age 25, whereas family support was associated with lower thoughtlessness scores in CC males, which may suggest a protective effect of supportive family environment in this group. Together the findings suggest that DRD2 rs6277 polymorphism, in interaction with environmental factors experienced in childhood and youth may affect facets of impulsivity. Future work should aim to further clarify the sex and age-specific effects of stressful and supportive environment on the development of neuronal systems that are compromised in disorders characterised by deficits in impulse control.