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53) PMID: 31927523 DOI: 10.1515/jpem-2019-0469
% 2020 Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
* Relative leptin deficiency in children with severe early-onset obesity (SEOO) - results of the Early-onset Obesity and Leptin - German-Polish Study (EOL-GPS).
- Background Severe early-onset obesity (SEOO) in children is a common feature of monogenic obesity. Gene defects of the leptin-melanocortin pathway can be analysed biochemically and genetically. The aim of this study was to search for children with leptin deficiency or biologically inactive leptin in a cohort of children with SEOO and to study associations between leptin parameters and anthropometric data. Methods The cohort included n = 50 children with SEOO (22 boys) who were recruited at one of four study centres (Germany: Ulm; Poland: Katowice, Szczecin, Rzeszow) between October 2015 and October 2017. Weight (kg) and height (m) were measured, Tanner stage was obtained and a fasting serum blood sample was taken. Serum levels of total leptin (LEP, ng/mL), biologically active leptin (bioLEP, ng/mL) and soluble leptin receptor (sLEPR, ng/mL) were measured. The body mass index (BMI [kg/m2]), BMI z-score (World Health Organization [WHO]), quotient of bioLEP/LEP and leptin-standard deviation score (LEP-SDS) (Tanner stage, BMI and sex-adjusted) were calculated. Results We did not find any child with leptin deficiency or biologically inactive leptin in our cohort. The serum LEP and bioLEP levels were strongly correlated with age (r = 0.50, p < 0.05) and BMI (r = 0.70; p < 0.0001). Girls had higher LEP and bioLEP levels (49.7 ± 35.9 vs. 37.1 ± 25.5 ng/mL, p > 0.05) as well as lower LEP-SDS than boys (-1.77 ± 2.61 vs. -1.40 ± 2.60, p > 0.05). sLEPR levels were negatively correlated with BMI values (r = -0.44; p < 0.05), LEP (r = -0.39; p < 0.05) and bioLEP levels (r = -0.37; p < 0.05). Interestingly, there was a strong inverse relationship between LEP-SDS and BMI (r = -0.72, p < 0.001). Conclusions In this cohort with SEOO, we identified no new cases of children with leptin deficiency or bioinactive leptin. A strong negative correlation between the LEP-SDS and BMI values could be interpreted as relative leptin deficiency in children with SEOO. In case this hypothesis can be confirmed, these children would benefit from a substitution therapy with methionyl human leptin (metreleptin™).

54) PMID: 31927735 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-07600-2
% 2020 Environmental science and pollution research international
* Cadmium and chromium levels in water and edible herbs in a risk assessment study of rural residents living in Eastern Iran.
- In arid and semi-arid regions of Iran, water is supplied by qanats, underground channels where pollution is suspected, but unestablished. The aim of this study was thus to run a risk assessment study regarding the levels of cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) in qanat water and edible herbs (Adiantum capillus-verenis, Chara globularis and Plantago lanceolata) growing in qanats in 14 villages in South Khorasan Province in Iran between April and August 2018. Samples were collected in qanats from the same sampling points, and after mineralization in nitric and perchloric acids were analyzed for metal concentrations by means of atomic absorption spectrometry. Concentrations of Cd and Cr found in water were not high (0.028 and 1.091 μg L-1, respectively) and contamination parameters revealed no pollution. The ingestion rate of water and the exposure frequency to metals were the most relevant variables in the model of a sensitivity analysis, but the Hazard Quotient indicated no risk of non-carcinogenic health problems to consumers of the water. The Carcinogenic Risk parameter suggested, however, that there is a risk of these consumers' developing cancer. Concentrations found in herbs were higher than in water but remained below permissible thresholds. Hazard Quotient values of three species studied in the case of children and A. capillus-verenis in the case of adults indicated a potential non-carcinogenic health risk linked with eating them. The study reveals that further research to include many of the qanats across Iran should be carried out to verify the scale of the risk suggested. Graphical abstract.

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