* Evaluation of the Diagnostic Value of Contrast-Enhanced Voiding Urosonography with Regard to the Further Therapy Regime and Patient Outcome-A Single-Center Experience in an Interdisciplinary Uroradiological Setting.
- Background and Objectives: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) describes a common pediatric anomaly in pediatric urology with a prevalence of 1-2%. In diagnostics, in addition to the gold standard of voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), contrast-enhanced urosonography (ceVUS) offers a radiation-free procedure, which, despite its advantages, is not yet widely used. In the present single-center study, subsequent therapeutic procedures and outcomes after ceVUS of 49 patients were investigated. The aim of the study is to investigate the efficacy of ceVUS with the intention of broader clinical implementation. Materials and Methods: Between 2016 and 2020, 49 patients were retrospectively included and received a ceVUS to evaluate VUR. With a distribution of 47:2 (95.9%), a clear female predominance was present. The age of the patients varied between 5 months and 60 years at the time of ceVUS. All examinations were all performed and subsequently interpreted by a single experienced radiologist (EFSUMB level 3). Results: Compared to intraoperative findings, ceVUS shows a sensitivity of 95.7% with a specificity of 100%. Allergic reactions to the contrast medium could not be observed. Conclusion: With its high sensitivity and intraoperative validation, ceVUS offers an excellent alternative to VCUG, the gold standard in the diagnosis of VUR. In addition, ceVUS is a radiation-free examination method with a low risk profile that offers an exceptional diagnostic tool in the diagnostic clarification of recurrent urinary tract infections with the suspected diagnosis of VUR and should also be included in the consideration of a diagnosis next to the established VCUG, especially in younger children.
* Quantification of Accidental Gluten Contamination in the Diet of Children with Treated Celiac Disease.
- A strict gluten-free diet is extremely difficult to maintain. Protracted ingestion of gluten traces (>10 mg/day) is sufficient to cause significant damage in the architecture of the small intestinal mucosa in patients on treatment for celiac disease. The aim of this study was to directly measure the level of contaminating gluten in the daily diet of celiac children following a gluten-free diet. From April 2019 to December 2019, celiac disease children (2-18 years old) on a gluten-free diet for ≥6 months were offered to participate in this prospective-observational study. Patients and their caregivers were invited to provide a representative portion (about 10 g) of all meals consumed during a 24-h period. Participants were requested to weigh all ingested food and report items in a 24-h food diary. The gluten content was quantified by the R5 sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Sixty-nine children completed the protocol. Overall, 12/448 (2.7%) food samples contained detectable amounts of gluten; of them, 11 contained 5-20 ppm and 1 >20 ppm. The 12 contaminated food samples belonged to 5/69 enrolled patients. In these 5 children, the daily gluten intake was well below the safety threshold of 10 mg/day. The present findings suggest that in a country characterized by high celiac disease awareness, the daily unintended exposure to gluten of treated celiac children on regular follow-up is very low; reassuringly, the presence of gluten traces did not lead to exceed the tolerable threshold of 10 mg/day of gluten intake in the gluten-free diet.