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47) PMID: 33433850 DOI: 10.1007/s12031-021-01790-1
% 2021 Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN
* Impaired Thiol/Disulfide Homeostasis in Children Diagnosed with Autism: A Case-Control Study.
- Although genetic factors occupy an important place in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), oxidative stress and exposure to environmental toxicants have also been linked to the condition. The aim of this study was to examine dynamic thiol/disulfide homeostasis in children diagnosed with ASD. Forty-eight children aged 3-12 years diagnosed with ASD and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy children were included in the study. A sociodemographic data form was completed for all the cases, and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) was applied to the patients. Thiol/disulfide parameters in serum were measured in all cases and compared between the two groups. Mean native thiol, total thiol concentrations (μmol/L), and median reduced thiol ratios were significantly lower in the ASD group than in the control group (p = 0.001 for all). Median disulfide concentrations (μmol/L), redox potential, and median oxidized thiol ratios were significantly higher in the ASD group than in the control group (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, and p = 0.001, respectively). ROC analysis revealed that area under the curve (AUC) values with "excellent discriminatory potential," for native thiol, total thiol, the reduced thiol ration, the oxidized thiol ratio, and redox potential and with "acceptable discriminatory potential" for disulfide were significantly capable of differentiating individuals with ASD from healthy individuals. No correlation was determined between the severity of autism and laboratory parameters. Impaired dynamic thiol/disulfide homeostasis was observed in children with ASD, suggesting that dynamic thiol/disulfide homeostasis in serum may be of diagnostic value in autism.

48) PMID: 29294892 DOI: 10.1177/0886260517726973
% 2021 Journal of interpersonal violence
* Factors Associated With Child Maltreatment Among Children Aged 11 to 17 Years in Community Settings of Karachi, Pakistan, Using Belsky Ecological Framework.
- Child maltreatment is considered as a global social issue and results as combined effect of parental background, socioeconomic environment, family structure, and child characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with child maltreatment among children aged 11 to 17 years in Karachi, Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey of 800 pairs (children ranging from 11 to 17 years old and their parents) was randomly selected from 32 clusters of Karachi, using multistage cluster sampling. A structured questionnaire was adopted from the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (International Child Abuse Screening Tool for Parent [ICAST-P] and for Child [ICAST-C]). Multiple linear regression technique was used to assess the association of factors with child maltreatment score, by using STATA software. Our study found that children who always get bullied and mistreated by their siblings are at increased risk of getting maltreatment by parents (adjusted β: 10.78, 95% CI = [8.5, 13.05]).The mean estimated ICAST-C score increases by 9.86 (95% CI = [6.17, 13.55]) for children with exposure of verbal abuse and quarrel within family members. The mean estimated ICAST-C score increases by 5.09 among male children as compared with female children (95% CI = [3.65, 6.52]). Among children whose family always fight with each other and whose parents have exposure to childhood maltreatment, the mean estimated ICAST-C score increases by 22.25 (95% CI = [16.53, 27.98]). This study reflects the potential factors of child maltreatment in Karachi. Our findings provide evidence to raise awareness about child maltreatment.

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