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5) PMID: 29096523 DOI: 10.1080/13557858.2017.1398313
% 2020 Ethnicity & health
* Prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in secondary school children in Dhaka city, Bangladesh.
- Objectives: Depression is a leading contributor to the global burden of disease, and often starts at a young age. Depression in young people can increase the risk of unhealthy lifestyle behaviour and can lead to substantial disability, social problems, poor health, and suicide. Other research has examined depressive symptoms among adult populations in Bangladesh, but little is known about other age groups. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of depressive symptoms among secondary school children of Dhaka city, Bangladesh.Design: A self-completed questionnaire was administered to 898 students from eight secondary schools of Dhaka, the capital City of Bangladesh. Of the respondents, 755 (372 males, 383 females; average age 14.26 years; SD 1.15) completed the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10). A score of 10 or more was used to indicate depressive symptoms. Parents completed a separate questionnaire to provide individual and household/family-level data. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) was used to assess sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated with adolescent depressive symptoms.Results: Among the responding adolescents, 25% reported depressive symptoms with prevalence more common among females than males (30% vs. 19%). Factors significantly associated with symptoms of depression included being female, aged 15-16 years, self-perception of non-normal weight, feeling unsafe at school, sleep disturbance, low life satisfaction, high intake of sugary drinks, and regularly skipping breakfast.Conclusion: Depressive symptoms are prevalent among secondary school children in urban Bangladesh. Interventions for adolescents with depressive symptoms could focus on lifestyle practices such as weight management, personal safety, sleep hygiene and healthy eating.

6) PMID: 30189798 DOI: 10.1080/10503307.2018.1519267
% 2020 Psychotherapy research : journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
* Interaction structures as predictors of outcome in a naturalistic study of psychodynamic child psychotherapy.
- Objective: The first aim of this study was to identify interaction structures (IS), which refer to clusters of items characterizing the course of psychotherapy in terms of reciprocal interaction patterns between the therapist and the child, secondly to assess their trends over the course of treatment, and finally investigate which IS predict outcome in long-term psychodynamic child psychotherapy.Method: The sample included 52 children with externalizing and internalizing problems. 192 sessions were rated with the use of the Child Psychotherapy Q-Set (CPQ). Outcome was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Total Problems, and Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS).Results: A principal components analysis resulted in four IS, theoretically named Therapeutic Alliance, Children's Emotion Expression, Child -Centered Technique and Psychodynamic Technique. Multilevel Modeling (MLM) analyses indicated significant linear growth on Psychodynamic Technique. Multiple regression analyses indicated that Psychodynamic Technique positively predicted changes on CBCL Total Problems and CGAS. In contrast, Child-Centered technique negatively predicted change on CBCL Total Problems, however follow up interaction analyses showed that externalizing children who received more Child-Centered technique showed more improvement on this scale.Discussion: Findings point to empirically derived components of psychodynamic child psychotherapy and provide preliminary answers about which aspects may facilitate change.

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