ELIZA cgi-bash version rev. 1.90
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39) PMID: 33428802 DOI: 10.1002/jdn.10089
% 2021 International journal of developmental neuroscience : the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience
* Animal models of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
- Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by three primary symptoms hyperactivity, attention deficit, and impulsiveness, observed in both children and adults. In childhood, this disorder is more common in boys than in girls, and at least 75% will continue to suffer from the disorder until adulthood. Individuals with ADHD generally have poor academic, occupational, and social functioning resulting from developmentally inappropriate levels of hyperactivity and impulsivity, as well as impaired ability to maintain attention on motivationally relevant tasks. Very few drugs available in clinical practice altogether abolish the symptoms of ADHD therefore, to find new drugs and target it is essential to understand the neuropathological, neurochemical, and genetic alterations which lead to progression of ADHD. With this contrast, an animal study is the best approach because animal models provide relatively fast invasive manipulation, rigorous hypothesis testing, as well as it provides a better angle to understand the pathological mechanisms involved in disease progression. Moreover, animal models, especially for ADHD, serve with good predictive validity would allow the assessment and development of new therapeutic interventions, with this aim, the present review collect the various animal models on the single platform so that the research can select an appropriate model to pursue his study.

40) PMID: 33428967 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.12.030
% 2021 Neuroscience
* Neurodevelopment of posture-movement coordination from late childhood to adulthood as assessed from bimanual load-lifting task: an ERP study.
- In a bimanual task, proprioception provides information about position and movement of upper arms. Developmental studies showed improvement of proprioceptive accuracy and timing adjustments of muscular events from childhood to adulthood in bimanual tasks. However, the cortical maturational changes related to bimanual coordination is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate cortical correlates underlying motor planning and upper limb stabilization performance at left (C3) and right (C4) sensorimotor cortices using event-related potential (ERP) analyses. We recruited 46 participants divided into four groups (12 children: 8-10 years, 13 early adolescents: 11-13 years, 11 late adolescents: 14-16 years and 10 young adults: 20-35 years). Participants performed a bimanual load-lifting task, where the left postural arm supported the load and the right motor arm lifted the load. Maximal amplitude of elbow rotation (MA%) of the postural arm, reaction time (RT) and EMG activity of biceps brachii bilaterally were computed. Laplacian-transformed ERPs of the electroencephalographic (EEG) signal response-locked to motor arm biceps EMG activity onset were analyzed over C3 and C4. We found a developmental effect for behavioral and EEG data denoted by significant decrease of MA% and RT with age, earlier inhibition of the biceps brachii of the postural arm in adults and earlier EEG activation/inhibition onset at C3/C4. Amplitude of the negative wave at C4 was higher in children and early adolescents compared to the other groups. In conclusion, we found a maturational process in cortical correlates related to motor planning and upper limb stabilization performance with interhemispheric lateralization appearing during adolescence. Findings may serve documenting bimanual performance in children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

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