% 2020 Breastfeeding medicine : the official journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
* Weaning Practices of Turkish Mothers: A Mixed-Model Research.
- Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the weaning practices of mothers who have children between the ages of 2 and 5 years. Materials and Methods: This study was designed as a cross-sectional descriptive study, which was carried out between September 1, 2019 and October 1, 2019 in a pediatric clinic of a university hospital. For a better understanding, the traditional approaches, qualitative, and quantitative data were collected concurrently and analyzed together using Creswell's concurrent transformative mixed-model research design. Results: Of the 114 participants, the overall mean age was 29.2 ± 4.5 years. The mean breastfeeding duration was 15.3 ± 8.2 months. Sixty five (57.0%) of participants terminated breastfeeding themselves and 55 (85.9%) of them used traditional methods for weaning their children. The traditional methods used for termination of breastfeeding were staining the nipples to make baby startle (16.4%), applying nipples with a bad taste or smell to make baby disgust (40.0%), covering the nipples with various materials (18.2%), using a pacifier or feeding bottle (20.0%), and separation from mother (5.5%). Conclusions: In this study, it was found that most of the Turkish mothers use improper traditional methods for weaning. This study also demonstrated the urgent need to plan effective counseling services to implement natural weaning rather than traditional methods that are unsuitable for weaning.
* Stencil Printing-A Novel Manufacturing Platform for Orodispersible Discs.
- Stencil printing is a commonly used printing method, but it has not previously been used for production of pharmaceuticals. The aim of this study was to explore whether stencil printing of drug containing polymer inks could be used to manufacture flexible dosage forms with acceptable mass and content uniformity. Formulation development was supported by physicochemical characterization of the inks and final dosage forms. The printing of haloperidol (HAL) discs was performed using a prototype stencil printer. Ink development comprised of investigations of ink rheology in combination with printability assessment. The results show that stencil printing can be used to manufacture HAL doses in the therapeutic treatment range for 6-17 year-old children. The therapeutic HAL dose was achieved for the discs consisting of 16% of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and 1% of lactic acid (LA). The formulation pH remained above pH 4 and the results imply that the drug was amorphous. Linear dose escalation was achieved by an increase in aperture area of the print pattern, while keeping the stencil thickness fixed. Disintegration times of the orodispersible discs printed with 250 and 500 µm thick stencils were below 30 s. In conclusion, stencil printing shows potential as a manufacturing method of pharmaceuticals.