| - Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a pregnancy complication that affects one in seven pregnancies. Emerging evidence demonstrates that children born of pregnancies complicated by GDM may be at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine cardiovascular risk factors in offspring exposed to GDM in utero. PubMed, CINAHL, SCOPUS, and EMBASE databases were searched. Information was extracted on established CVD risk factors including blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, fasting insulin, body mass index (BMI), and endothelial/microvascular function. The review protocol is registered in PROSPERO (CRD42018094983). Prospective and retrospective studies comparing offspring exposed to GDM compared to controls (non-GDM pregnancies) were considered. We included studies that defined GDM based on the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) definition, or prior definitions. The PRISMA guidelines were followed in conducting this systematic review. Methodological quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were done by two independent reviewers. The data were pooled using a random-effects model. Of 59 eligible studies, 24 were included in the meta-analysis. Offspring exposed to GDM had higher systolic blood pressure (mean difference (MD): 1.75 mmHg, 95% CI 0.57-2.94; eight studies, 7264 participants), BMI z-score (MD 0.11, 95% CI 0.02-0.20; nine studies, 8759 participants), and glucose (standard MD 0.43, 95% CI 0.08-0.77; 11 studies, 6423 participants) than control participants. In conclusion, offspring exposed to GDM have elevated systolic blood pressure, BMI, and glucose. Those exposed to GDM in utero may benefit from early childhood blood pressure measurements.
| - Objectives: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease, characterized by recurrent, self limited attacks of fever with serositis. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of musculoskeletal complaints in children with FMF and to investigate the effect of genotype on these findings.Methods: Files of patients who had been seen in our department (during routine follow-up visits) were retrospectively evaluated. Comparisons regarding musculoskeletal findings were performed between patients with homozygous/compound heterozygous and heterozygous mutations. Thereafter, patients with two mutations were divided into three groups; M694V/M694V, M694V/other mutation and patients carrying two mutations other than M694V. Patients with single mutation were divided into two groups; M694V and non M694V carriers.Results: The study group comprised 317 FMF patients (170 females) with a mean age of 12.2 ± 5.7 years. Arthralgia (42.6%), leg pain (42.9%) and heel pain (35.6%) were the most common musculoskeletal complaints in children with FMF. Frequency of musculoskeletal findings of the patients who had two mutations did not differ from the patients with single mutations (p>0.05). Leg and heel pain were more frequently detected in patients with homozygous M694V mutation (p=0.001). Among patients with heterozygous mutations; children with M694V mutation had more frequently arthralgia, leg and heel pain (p<0.05).Conclusions: Musculoskeletal problems were commonly encountered in patients with FMF. Genotype seems to affect the frequency of these problems and M694V mutation is a predisposing factor for musculoskeletal complaints.