* Polymorphism of the Bradykinin Type 2 Receptor Gene Modulates Blood Pressure Profile and Microvascular Function in Prepubescent Children.
- Previous reports reveal that +9/-9 polymorphism of the bradykinin B2 receptor (BDKRB2) is suggestive of cardiometabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of BDKRB2 + 9/-9 polymorphism genotypes on the blood pressure parameters and microvascular function in prepubescent children. We screened for BDKRB2 + 9/-9 polymorphism in the DNA of 145 children (86 boys and 59 girls), and its association with body composition, blood pressure levels, biochemical parameters, and endothelial function was determined. No significant association of the BDKRB2 genotypes with gender (P=0.377), race (P=0.949) or family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (P=0.858) was observed. Moreover, we did not identify any interaction between BDKRB2 genotypes with a phenotype of obesity (P=0.144). Children carrying the +9/+9 genotype exhibited a significant linear trend with higher levels of systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure (P<0.001). Moreover, the presence of +9 allele resulted in a decrease of reactive hyperemia index, showing a decreasing linear trend from -9/-9 to +9/+9, wherein this parameter of endothelial function was the lowest in the +9/+9 children, intermediate in the +9/-9 children, and the highest in the -9/-9 children (P<0.001). There was a significant inverse correlation between reactive hyperemia index and systolic blood pressure (r= - 0.348, P< 0.001) and pulse pressure (r= - 0.399, P< 0.001). Our findings indicate that the +9/+9 BDKRB2 genotype was associated with high blood pressure and microvascular dysfunction in prepubescent Brazilian children.
* Trunk Control and Upper Limb Function of Walking and Non-walking Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Individuals.
- Aim: To verify and compare trunk control and upper limb functionality (ULs) in walking and non-walking DMD individuals, with that of individuals without dystrophinopathies.Method: Cross-sectional study, with children without dystrophinopathy (healthy control group) and in walking and non-walking DMD children evaluated by the following scales: Segmental Control Evaluation Trunk (SATCo); Performance of Upper Limb (PUL) and Jebsen-Taylor Test (JTT).Results: There was a difference between the groups in trunk control and ULs function by the PUL scale, but there was no difference between walking and the reference group in all JTT subtests; The JTT writing subtest was not different between groups. There was a strong correlation between PUL and SATCo, both had a strong correlation with disease staging and a weak correlation with JTT.Conclusions: There is relevance to the evaluation of trunk control and ULs function of walking and non-walking DMD.