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25) PMID: 33410271 DOI: 10.1002/aur.2467
% 2021 Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism Research
* The Revised Children's Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-R): Factor Structure and Psychometric Evaluation.
- The Children's Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2) is often applied to assess pragmatic language impairment which is highly prevalent in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and several mental health conditions. We replicated previous findings on the limited applicability of the CCC-2 in clinical samples and the inconsistent findings concerning the factor structure. The aim of the present study was, thus, to develop a concise, simplified, and revised version of the CCC-2 in a large German-speaking sample. Four groups of children and adolescents aged 4 to 17 years were included: ASD (n = 195), intellectual disability (ID, n = 83), diverse mental health conditions (MHC, n = 144) and a typically developing control group (TD, n = 417). We reduced the original number of items from 70 to 39, based on item analysis, exploratory factor analysis and the exclusion of communication-unrelated items. The revised version, CCC-R (α = 0.96), consists of two empirically derived factors: a pragmatic-language (α = 0.96) and a grammatical-semantic-language factor (α = 0.93). All clinical groups (ASD, ID, and MHC) had significantly increased CCC-R total scores, with the highest scores being in the neurodevelopmental disorder groups (ASD and ID). In addition, we found group-specific patterns of elevated pragmatic-language scores in the ASD group and grammatical-semantic scores in the ID group. The CCC-R was comparable to the CCC-2 in distinguishing ASD from the other groups. The CCC-R is proposed as a simplified and easily applied, clinical questionnaire for caregivers, assessing pragmatic language impairments across neurodevelopmental disorders and mental health conditions. LAY SUMMARY: The CCC-2 is a questionnaire designed to identify children who have problems in the social use of language, however, it is limited in its clinical application and exhibits inconsistent factors. We have created a shorter and simpler version of the CCC-2 that we have called the CCC-R which overcomes the previous limitations of CCC-2. It consists of two subscales: pragmatic language and grammatical-semantic language. The CCC-R can be used as a short and clinically relevant caregiver questionnaire which assesses pragmatic language impairments in children and adolescents.

26) PMID: 33411152 DOI: 10.1007/s10875-020-00960-x
% 2021 Journal of clinical immunology
* Clinical and Immunological Features of 96 Moroccan Children with SCID Phenotype: Two Decades' Experience.
- Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a heterogeneous group of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) characterized by a lack of autologous T lymphocytes. This severe PID is rare, but has a higher prevalence in populations with high rates of consanguinity. The epidemiological, clinical, and immunological features of SCIDs in Moroccan patients have never been reported. The aim of this study was to provide a clinical and immunological description of SCID in Morocco and to assess changes in the care of SCID patients over time. This cross-sectional retrospective study included 96 Moroccan patients referred to the national PID reference center at Casablanca Children's Hospital for SCID over two decades, from 1998 to 2019. The case definition for this study was age < 2 years, with a clinical phenotype suggestive of SCID, and lymphopenia, with very low numbers of autologous T cells, according to the IUIS Inborn Errors of Immunity classification. Our sample included 50 male patients, and 66% of the patients were born to consanguineous parents. The median age at onset and diagnosis were 3.3 and 6.5 months, respectively. The clinical manifestations commonly observed in these patients were recurrent respiratory tract infection (82%), chronic diarrhea (69%), oral candidiasis (61%), and failure to thrive (65%). The distribution of SCID phenotypes was as follows: T-B-NK+ in 44.5%, T-B-NK- in 32%, T-B+NK- in 18.5%, and T-B+NK+ in 5%. An Omenn syndrome phenotype was observed in 15 patients. SCID was fatal in 84% in the patients in our cohort, due to the difficulties involved in obtaining urgent access to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which, nevertheless, saved 16% of the patients. The autosomal recessive forms of the clinical and immunological phenotypes of SCID, including the T-B-NK+ phenotype in particular, were more frequent than those in Western countries. A marked improvement in the early detection of SCID cases over the last decade was noted. Despite recent progress in SCID diagnosis, additional efforts are required, for genetic confirmation and particularly for HSCT.

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