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1) PMID: 32815672 DOI: 10.17392/1192-21
% 2021 Medicinski glasnik : official publication of the Medical Association of Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina
* Oxidative stress markers in initial therapy and remission of nephrotic syndrome and serum malondialdehyde level predictor from routine laboratory test.
- Aim To compare oxidative stress state of children with nephrotic syndrome at the first week of treatment and in remission, and to predict malondialdehyde (MDA) level from routine laboratory tests. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 80 1-18 years old children with nephrotic syndrome, who were divided into two groups: initial group (40 children in the first week of therapy) and remission group (40 children in remission). Demographic characteristics of the patients were taken by a questionnaire. Laboratory tests were measured in the initial group; in the remission group negative or trace proteinuria was measured for three consecutive days. Serum urea, creatinine, albumin, total cholesterol, MDA, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and urine albuminto-creatinine ratio (UACR) were measured and compared between the groups. Albumin, total cholesterol, and UACR were subjected to predict high serum MDA using a mean of all patients' MDA level as a cutoff. Results There were higher albumin levels and lower UACR, total cholesterol, and MDA in the remission group compared to the initial group. Albumin and UACR showed good accuracy, and total cholesterol showed very good accuracy to predict serum MDA level more than 1.35 µmol/L. Conclusion Children with nephrotic syndrome in the first week of therapy showed a higher oxidative stress state than the children in remission. Serum albumin, serum total cholesterol, and UACR can predict serum MDA level with good accuracy.

2) PMID: 33155460 DOI: 10.17392/1196-21
% 2021 Medicinski glasnik : official publication of the Medical Association of Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina
* Left to right shunt congenital heart disease as a risk factor of recurrent pneumonia in under five-year-old children: a single centre experience in Bandung Indonesia.
- Aim Children with congenital heart diseases are at the greater risk of respiratory tract infection such as pneumonia. Recurrent pneumonia is one of the most major challenge for paediatric physicians. The aim of this study is to investigate risk factors of congenital heart diseases to recurrent pneumonia children. Methods This was a retrospective study of under five-year-old children hospitalized in Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung Indonesia from 2015 to 2018. Congenital heart diseases and pneumonia, as well as recurrent pneumonia, were identified. Congenital heart diseases diagnosis with and without pneumonia were reviewed. Results Of 6997 hospitalized children, in 1258 (18.0%) congenital heart diseases were found, of which 232 (18.4%) had recurrent pneumonia. Most of those had left to right (L to R) shunt, 213 (91.8%). Congenital heart diseases in children aged under 1 year, 144 (62%) were more preponderant than in those aged 1-5 years. More than a half, 119 (51.3%) were males. Left to right shunt was documented as having recurrent pneumonia, of which patent ductus arteriosus and ventricular septal defect were the most common type in congenital heart diseases. Ventricular septal defect had a possibility for recurrent pneumonia by 1.551 times, and malnutrition 2.591 times. Conclusion Ventricular septal defect and malnutrition were identified as risk factors for recurrent pneumonia. Those patients require multidisciplinary approach to prevent respiratory complications.

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