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- Medical English LInking keywords finder for the PubMed Zipped Archive (ELIZA) -

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581812 occurrences (No.15 in the rank) during 5 years in the PubMed. [cache]
4) High variability in the discriminating dose values was found among the BZ drugs.
--- ABSTRACT ---
PMID:24128686 DOI:10.1017/S0022149X13000618
2015 Journal of helminthology
* Benzimidazole-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in indigenous Chiapas and Pelibuey sheep breeds from Chiapas, Mexico.
- Because of the natural adaptation of Mexican sheep, the aim of the present study was to identify the presence or absence of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes (GIN) resistant to benzimidazole (BZ) in both Chiapas and Pelibuey sheep breeds on local farms. Both male and female GIN-infected grazing sheep of the two breeds were selected. Sheep faecal samples were collected to obtain infective larvae (L3). This evolving stage of the parasite was used for taxonomic identification of the genus, based on its morphological characteristics. BZ anthelmintic resistance was evaluated using a nematode-compound in vitro interaction bioassay and the allele-specific polymerase chain reaction technique to detect mutations of residues 198 and 200 on isotype 1 of the β-tubulin gene. Three BZ-based compounds (febendazole (FBZ), tiabendazole (TBZ) and albendazole (ABZ)) at concentrations of 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.062 and 0.03 mg/ml were used to estimate the anthelmintic efficacy and lethal dose (LD50, LD90 and LD99) of the drugs. Two parasitic nematodes, Haemonchus and Teladorsagia, were identified in both isolates. Also, the proportions of anthelmintic resistance identified in GIN of the two sheep breeds were 68% in isolates from the Chiapas breed and 71.8% in the Pelibuey breed. The specific lethal activity obtained with FBZ was higher than 90%. However, TBZ and ABZ showed a lethal activity lower than 50%. High variability in the discriminating dose values was found among the BZ drugs. For example, FBZ LD ranged from 0.01 to 1.20 mg/ml; on the other hand, TBZ and ABZ required a dose ranging from 0.178 to 759 mg/ml. In addition, amino acid changes of Phe (TTC) to Tyr (TAC) at codon 200 of the β-tubulin gene, showing resistance to BZ, and no changes at codon 198 Glu (GAA) to Ala (GCA) were observed for both isolates. These results confirmed the presence of a genetic mutation associated with BZ in both Chiapas and Pelibuey nematode isolates.
[frequency of prior(left) word to found]
(1)143 was (6)22 been (11)6 are (16)3 that
(2)110 were (7)12 and (12)5 be (17)2 analysis
(3)46 We (8)10 is (13)5 those (18)2 as
(4)29 we (9)10 not (14)3 authors (19)2 examination
(5)25 also (10)10 study (15)3 have

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--- WordNet output for found --- =>設立する, 基礎づける Overview of noun found The noun found has 1 sense (first 1 from tagged texts) 1. (1) found -- (food and lodging provided in addition to money; "they worked for $30 and found") Overview of verb found The verb found has 3 senses (first 2 from tagged texts) 1. (9) establish, set up, found, launch -- (set up or found; "She set up a literacy program") 2. (4) establish, found, plant, constitute, institute -- (set up or lay the groundwork for; "establish a new department") 3. establish, base, ground, found -- (use as a basis for; found on; "base a claim on some observation") Overview of verb find The verb find has 16 senses (first 13 from tagged texts) 1. (159) find, happen, chance, bump, encounter -- (come upon, as if by accident; meet with; "We find this idea in Plato"; "I happened upon the most wonderful bakery not very far from here"; "She chanced upon an interesting book in the bookstore the other day") 2. (141) detect, observe, find, discover, notice -- (discover or determine the existence, presence, or fact of; "She detected high levels of lead in her drinking water"; "We found traces of lead in the paint") 3. (86) find, regain -- (come upon after searching; find the location of something that was missed or lost; "Did you find your glasses?"; "I cannot find my gloves!") 4. (57) determine, find, find out, ascertain -- (establish after a calculation, investigation, experiment, survey, or study; "find the product of two numbers"; "The physicist who found the elusive particle won the Nobel Prize") 5. (57) find, feel -- (come to believe on the basis of emotion, intuitions, or indefinite grounds; "I feel that he doesn't like me"; "I find him to be obnoxious"; "I found the movie rather entertaining") 6. (45) witness, find, see -- (perceive or be contemporaneous with; "We found Republicans winning the offices"; "You'll see a lot of cheating in this school"; "The 1960's saw the rebellion of the younger generation against established traditions"; "I want to see results") 7. (41) line up, get hold, come up, find -- (get something or somebody for a specific purpose; "I found this gadget that will serve as a bottle opener"; "I got hold of these tools to fix our plumbing"; "The chairman got hold of a secretary on Friday night to type the urgent letter") 8. (34) discover, find -- (make a discovery, make a new finding; "Roentgen discovered X-rays"; "Physicists believe they found a new elementary particle") 9. (29) discover, find -- (make a discovery; "She found that he had lied to her"; "The story is false, so far as I can discover") 10. (16) find -- (obtain through effort or management; "She found the time and energy to take care of her aging parents"; "We found the money to send our sons to college") 11. (16) rule, find -- (decide on and make a declaration about; "find someone guilty") 12. (13) receive, get, find, obtain, incur -- (receive a specified treatment (abstract); "These aspects of civilization do not find expression or receive an interpretation"; "His movie received a good review"; "I got nothing but trouble for my good intentions") 13. (11) find -- (perceive oneself to be in a certain condition or place; "I found myself in a difficult situation"; "When he woke up, he found himself in a hospital room") 14. recover, retrieve, find, regain -- (get or find back; recover the use of; "She regained control of herself"; "She found her voice and replied quickly") 15. find -- (succeed in reaching; arrive at; "The arrow found its mark") 16. find oneself, find -- (accept and make use of one's personality, abilities, and situation; "My son went to Berkeley to find himself") Overview of adj found The adj found has 1 sense (first 1 from tagged texts) 1. (1) found -- (come upon unexpectedly or after searching; "found art"; "the lost-and-found department") --- WordNet end ---