ELIZA cgi-bash version rev. 1.90
- Medical English LInking keywords finder for the PubMed Zipped Archive (ELIZA) -

return kwic search for based out of >500 occurrences
404793 occurrences (No.42 in the rank) during 5 years in the PubMed. [cache]
324) Challenges to improve toxicological risk assessment to meet the demands of the EU chemical's legislation, REACH, and the EU 7th Amendment of the Cosmetics Directive have accelerated the development of non-animal based methods.
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PMID:23978460 DOI:10.1016/j.tox.2013.08.012
2015 Toxicology
* Dose metric considerations in in vitro assays to improve quantitative in vitro-in vivo dose extrapolations.
- Challenges to improve toxicological risk assessment to meet the demands of the EU chemical's legislation, REACH, and the EU 7th Amendment of the Cosmetics Directive have accelerated the development of non-animal based methods. Unfortunately, uncertainties remain surrounding the power of alternative methods such as in vitro assays to predict in vivo dose-response relationships, which impedes their use in regulatory toxicology. One issue reviewed here, is the lack of a well-defined dose metric for use in concentration-effect relationships obtained from in vitro cell assays. Traditionally, the nominal concentration has been used to define in vitro concentration-effect relationships. However, chemicals may differentially and non-specifically bind to medium constituents, well plate plastic and cells. They may also evaporate, degrade or be metabolized over the exposure period at different rates. Studies have shown that these processes may reduce the bioavailable and biologically effective dose of test chemicals in in vitro assays to levels far below their nominal concentration. This subsequently hampers the interpretation of in vitro data to predict and compare the true toxic potency of test chemicals. Therefore, this review discusses a number of dose metrics and their dependency on in vitro assay setup. Recommendations are given on when to consider alternative dose metrics instead of nominal concentrations, in order to reduce effect concentration variability between in vitro assays and between in vitro and in vivo assays in toxicology.
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(1)247 on (10)3 approach (19)2 chemotherapy (28)2 physical
(2)10 method (11)3 hydrogels (20)2 computer-tailored (29)2 rehabilitation
(3)10 therapies (12)3 information (21)2 financing (30)2 retrospective
(4)5 cross-sectional (13)3 study (22)2 learning (31)2 scaffolds
(5)5 upon (14)3 techniques (23)2 methods (32)2 strategy
(6)4 survey (15)3 therapeutic (24)2 modelling (33)2 studies
(7)4 tissue (16)2 NPWT (25)2 morphometry (34)2 telephone
(8)3 CRT (17)2 RUTF (26)2 nutrient (35)2 vaccination
(9)3 anti-bullying (18)2 and (27)2 palliative

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--- WordNet output for based --- =>に基づき Overview of verb base The verb base has 3 senses (first 1 from tagged texts) 1. (75) establish, base, ground, found -- (use as a basis for; found on; "base a claim on some observation") 2. base -- (situate as a center of operations; "we will base this project in the new lab") 3. free-base, base -- (use (purified cocaine) by burning it and inhaling the fumes) Overview of adj based The adj based has 2 senses (first 2 from tagged texts) 1. (3) based -- (having a base; "firmly based ice") 2. (1) based -- (having a base of operations (often used as a combining form); "a locally based business"; "an Atlanta-based company"; "carrier-based planes") --- WordNet end ---